Occupational health and accidents
First aid instructions
Ensiavun toimintaohjeet englanti - sisältö
Preparedness and planning in case of an accident, prevention of hazardous situations and good operational readiness are essential in first aid.
The identification of hazards is the starting point for all workplace-specific planning and instructions. In most cases, the workplace has only has a few greater risk factors and focuses on their prevention and management planning. Every person at the workplace must be aware of the instructions for accidents.
The following must be recorded in the instructions:
- who manages and organises the situation in the event of an accident
- who calls for help
- who takes care of first aid
- what first aid supplies are available, where they are located and who is responsible for them
- how the transfers of injured persons are organised
- where the emergency transport unit should be directed
- how to contact the first aid team or its member (if any at the workplace).
The distance from large industrial plants to hospitals and ambulances varies. A workplace can discuss practices with local medical transport and rescue personnel including how they will be alerted of an accident (call 112 / call the gate / call the control room) and the easiest way to access the industrial area through the gates.
Operating principles for accidents can be recorded in the instructions:
- Determine what has happened.
- Is there a danger of further accidents?
- Save others but remember your own safety.
- Alert professional assistance as quickly as possible.
- Perform first aid.
- Keep the injured person warm and calm until professional assistance arrives.
A local operating instruction in special situations is always a guideline prepared for each workplace. For example, separate instructions should often be prepared if there is a risk of accidents involving corrosive, toxic, flammable and explosive chemicals.
Safety data sheets must be available
Information on the hazardous properties of chemical substances and the special characteristics of first aid can be found in, for example, product safety data sheets and safety instructions for chemicals that can be hazardous. Safety data sheets for chemicals that present a particular risk must be easily accessible at the location where the chemical is used or stored, so that rescue personnel can also be informed of these immediately upon arrival. It is also a good idea to create special chemical cards from which the following information can be accessed simply and quickly
- dangers caused by the chemical
- correct protection
- first aid instructions.
If there are antidotes to sudden poisoning or injuries caused by chemical substances, care must be taken to ensure that these are purchased and people know how to use them at the workplace or at the emergency care point.
Quick access to an emergency shower or eye irrigation can prevent serious eye injuries and burns. Work where these is a risk of fire and explosions should have a point readily accessible where the affected area can be immediately rinsed with plenty of water, as should work involving the risk of chemical substances, such as bases, acids and other corrosive substances as well as those absorbed through the skin, splashing onto the skin, eyes or clothing.
If necessary, the workplace must have instructions for treating high-pressure injuries. See the web page First aid in high pressure water injection accidents for an example on such instructions.
For example, the absorption of hydrofluoric acid can be minimised in the event of an accident by applying calcium gluconate gel to the affected skin following a water rinse. Similarly, phenol splashes can be rinsed with polyethylene glycol solution. Workplaces can purchase amyl nitrite as an inhalation fluid package to use in the event of cyanide poisoning.